Water Soluble Vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin C, B-complex vitamins, biotin, and niacin are easily soluble in water. In the small intestine, these vitamins are absorbed with water, quickly dissolving in the body fluids, and are quickly washed from the body. The water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body and their excess in the body is rare. Water-solved vitamins are easily destroyed during food preparation or storage.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

  • Powerful antioxidative properties, battling with free radicalsVitamines
  • Promotes collagen and hemoglobin synthesis
  • Enhances immunity
  • Possesses anti-inflammatory activity
  • Heals wounds forming scar tissue;
  • Promotes protein synthesis which is used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels
  • Maintains cartilage, bones, and teeth
  • Aids in the iron absorption
  • Participates in the synthesis of steroid hormones, such as epinephrine.

Sources: bright fruit and vegetables, such as citrus, strawberry, rosehip, tomatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, greens, broccoli, Brussels sprouts.

B-complex group 

All B vitamins, called B-complex, are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Carbohydrate is burned as fuel and energy is released. B-complex vitamins participate in fats and protein metabolism; also the vitamins B are required for normal liver functioning, vision, skin regeneration, and strengthen hair and nails. B-complex helps the nervous system perform properly.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

  • Is involved in carbohydrate metabolism
  • Boosts the immune system
  • Helps the nervous system performs properly.

Sources: red meat, liver, all organ meats, poultry, eggs, whole grains, wheat germ, asparagus, nuts, seeds, and brewer’s yeast.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

  • Is involved in carbohydrate metabolism
  • Works as an antioxidant
  • Helps the body change vitamin B6 and folate into forms it can use
  • Is important for normal vision
  • Helps in cell regeneration of tissues, including the skin.

Sources: all kinds of meat, milk, eggs, whole grains, greens, apricots, legumes, mushrooms, and brewer’s yeast.

Deficiency of this vitamin is rare.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

  • Assists the body in making sex and stress hormones, produced by the adrenal glands
  • Helps improve circulation
  • Lower cholesterol and triglycerides levels.

Sources: synthesized from tryptophan, which is present in any diet rich in protein: red meat, liver, other organ meats, poultry, fish, eggs, apricots, legumes, whole grains, and mushrooms.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)

  • Participates in metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydratesvitamines
  • Is involved in the manufacture of red blood cells and stress-related hormones
  • Helps the body use other vitamins, particularly B2
  • Contributes to building and regeneration of epithelium and endothelium.

Sources: red meat, liver, other organ meats, eggs, cereals, green and yellow vegetables, walnuts, almonds, peas, legumes, whole grains, mushrooms, yeast.

Deficiencies of the Vitamin B5 are rare.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

  • Participates in protein, carbohydrates and  lipid metabolism
  • Helps the body to produce the hormones such as serotonin and norepinephrine, which is known as control mood hormones
  • Helps the body to produce melatonin, which is important for the inner body clock
  • Helps to maintain the structure and function of bones, teeth, and gums.

Sources: red meat, liver, other organ meats, fish, greens, whole grains, apricots, legumes, seeds.

Vitamin B9 and Folic acid (Folate)

  • Plays an important role in mental and emotional health
  • Participates in the biosynthesis of nucleotides during  time when cells and tissues are growing rapidly (infancy, adolescence, and pregnancy)
  • Help prevent spina bifida in newborns
  • Participates in amino-acid metabolism
  • Support adrenal function
  • Works with vitamin B12 to help make erythrocytes and help iron work properly in the body
  • Works with vitamins B6 and B12 and other nutrients to keep homocysteine levels under control (higher homocysteine levels increase damage to blood vessels; form blood clots that lead to strokes and heart attacks).

 Sources: liver, eggs, greens, whole grains, citrus fruits, legumes, seeds.

Vitamin B12 (Сobalamin)

  • Participates in the biosynthesis of nucleotides
  • Is required for the metabolism of vitamin B9 to help make red blood cells and the myelin formation in nervous tissue
  • Aids in building and regeneration of epithelium and endothelium. 

Sources: red meat, liver, other organ meats, shellfish, eggs, milk; absent from plant products.

Vitamin H or B7 (Biotin)

  • Participates in metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
  • Contributes to the protein absorption
  • Strengthen hair and nails
  • Plays a role in normal embryonic growth.

Sources: red meat, liver, other organ meats, eggs, cheese, cabbage, cauliflower, bananas, legumes, nuts.

RDA or Recommended Dietary Allowances are the recommended quantities of vitamins for healthy persons. RDAs may vary depending on a person's age, sex, and physical condition. Most vitamins must be obtained from a well-balanced diet.

Water-soluble RDA(mg)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 60
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) 1.5
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 1.7
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 19
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) 4-7
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 2
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) 0.2
Vitamin B12 (Сobalamin) 0.002
Vitamin H (Biotin) 0.03-0.1